Trade and Exchange: Archaeological Studies from History and Prehistory
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PhD dissertation, McMaster University.
Journal of Archaeological Science 41, Science and Technology of Archaeological Research 1 2 , Sardinian obsidian circulation and early maritime navigation in the Neolithic as shown through social network analysis. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 9 3 , Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 3, Blade production and the consumption of obsidian in Stentinello period Neolithic Sicily. Comptes Rendus Palevol 14, Contextualizing the role of obsidian in Chalcolithic Sicily c.
Lithic Technology 42, Hallam, B. Obsidian in the western Mediterranean: chacterisation by neutron activation analysis and optical emission spectroscopy. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 42, Hurcombe, L. Balmuth, R. Tykot Eds. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Iovino, M.
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Pessina, G. Muscio Eds. Atti del Convegno di Studi, Udine, aprile Processing fish with obsidian tools: the micro-tools. Jerem, K. Biro Eds. I, Oxford: Archaeopress. Archaeological volcanic glass from the site of Rocchicella Sicily, Italy. La Rosa, V. Analisi delle provenienze di ossidiane dal territorio di Milena Caltanissetta. Firenze: Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria. Lai, L.
Le Bourdonnec, F. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 13, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 7 4 , The diffusion of obsidian in the north-west Mediterranean: Toward a new model of the Chassean Middle Neolithic? Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 25 2 , A map of the Monte Arci Sardinia island, western Mediterranean obsidian primary to secondary sources. Implications for Neolithic provenance studies.
Palevol 5, Turbanti-Memmi Ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Mackey, M. The identification of obsidian sources in the Monte Arci region of Sardinia. Aspinall, S.
Warren Eds. March 30th - April 3rd Maniscalco, L. Syracuse: Morrone. Michels, J. Obsidian hydration dating in Sardinia. Rowland, Jr. Mulazzani, S.daluteretburs.tk
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Khedhaier, R. Obsidian from the Epipalaeolithic and Neolithic eastern Maghreb. A view from the Hergla context Tunisia. Journal of Archaeological Science 37, Nicoletti, F. Tusa Ed. Siciliana: Ediprint. Pappalardo, L. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 10, Pessina, A. Poupeau, G. Un bilan de cinquante annees de recherches.
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Dilestre, H. Marchesi Eds. Instrumental methods of obsidian characterization and prehistoric obsidian provenance studies: The current status. Farina, L. Eigeland, L. Costa Eds. Robb, J. Knapp Eds. Setzer, T. Use-wear Experiments with Obsidian.
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Lithic Technology 37 1 , Considering the Source: the importance of raw material characterization and provenance in obsidian use-wear studies. Nuovi apporti sulla diffusione, sui sistemi di produzione e sulla loro cronologia. Ales: NUR. Skinner, C. Davis, M. Corvallis, OR. Trump, D. Skorba and the Prehistory of Malta. Other studies have focused on the internal structure of villages and the multiple households contained with them Knight, , ; Prezzano, ; Archaeological Services, while a few studies have looked at individual households within these villages Kapches ; Williams-Shuker, Michard-Stutzman and others argue that while these approaches provide detailed information about certain segments of use, the most fruitful approaches combine an analysis of the household at several different levels.
An examination of the activities occurring at different scales-compartment, longhouse, and village is presented and provides information about the diverse activities that were occurring. Following Wilk and Rathje , "the household is the most common social component of subsistence, the smallest and most abundant activity group" with components linking the members, their activity areas, and the activities performed therein. These activities extend to the productive, distributive, transmission, and reproductive needs of the society and are embedded in the cultural and behavioral norms passed down between generations of kin groups.
Cross-culturally, the size and composition of the household varies from a few individuals to several dozen members Yanagisako, ; Brami, Some household members share a single house while other households have members who occupy spatially separated structures. Smaller households, often found in hunter-gatherer societies, have the ability to move across the landscape and make use of limited subsistence and economic resources. Large households, which are often found among sedentary groups, have the ability to exert greater flexibility in situations when the resources that were produced and consumed are diverse Wilk, Rathje, The leaders are often responsible for scheduling and organizing members of the household around seasonal procurement tasks.
Wilk and Rathje suggest that such tasks may be associated with the pooling distribution of goods within a particular household and exchange distribution of goods among households or larger corporate units in a community.
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Snow, argue that the residences and corresponding households of chiefs are often visible in the archaeological record and are marked by the largest houses which served not only as residences, but also meeting places, storage areas, and possibly even ceremonial locations for the community. Corporate groups according to Freeman as cited in Hayden, 3; see also Fortes, ; Nadel, "can be defined as one which has a body of collective rights and duties" that can be activated in diverse situations to meet the needs of a group. Corporate groups can be temporary and are not based on common descent.
Schusky 77 as cited in Hayden, defines a lineage as: "the unilateral descendants of a known common ancestor or ancestors" that extend several generations into the past.
Hayden questions whether the activities in a longhouse were organized around corporate groups or lineages. One such organizing principle might revolve around the trade of goods and the ability of leaders to attract and sustain related kin groups to support this task Hayden, Older children may play an important role in assisting with daily household and child-rearing tasks. Men are more likely than women to be involved in political and religious activities Snow, ; Engelbrecht, and evidence of these tasks may be reflected in the recovered artifacts.
Following Michaud-Stuzman , approaches incorporating analyses at the level of the individual household and at the site level provide complementary analyses that contribute to our understanding of the past. Information about the incorporation of foreigners can also be inferred providing information about the adoption of captives, and other outsiders. Comparative approaches between households can also provide information about variation within villages.
Included among these changes was a shift from a hunter-gatherer subsistence strategy to one reliant on the cultivation of corn, beans, and squash Hart, The settlement patterns of these early groups underwent changes evolving from seasonally occupied camps located along major waterways to large multi-family villages situated atop defensible terraces. Resource processing and special-purpose sites were nearby and supported village activities Perrelli, ; Rieth, Horton, The longhouse was advantageous in that it allowed one structure to be built to house extended households whose members cooperated in the completion of a variety of tasks.